N. Duane Loh, Soumyo Sen, Michel Bosman, Shu Fen Tan, Jun Zhong, Christian A. Nijhuis, Petr Král, Paul Matsudaira & Utkur Mirsaidov
Nature Chemistry 9, 77–82 (2017) doi:10.1038/nchem.2618
Received 08 May 2016 Accepted 18 August 2016 Published online 03 October 2016
The nucleation and growth of solids from solutions impacts many natural processes and is fundamental to applications in materials engineering and medicine. For a crystalline solid, the nucleus is a nanoscale cluster of ordered atoms that forms through mechanisms still poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether a nucleus forms spontaneously from solution via a single- or multiple-step process. Here, using in situ electron microscopy, we show how gold and silver nanocrystals nucleate from supersaturated aqueous solutions in three distinct steps: spinodal decomposition into solute-rich and solute-poor liquid phases, nucleation of amorphous nanoclusters within the metal-rich liquid phase, followed by crystallization of these amorphous clusters. Our ab initio calculations on gold nucleation suggest that these steps might be associated with strong gold–gold atom coupling and water-mediated metastable gold complexes. The understanding of intermediate steps in nuclei formation has important implications for the formation and growth of both crystalline and amorphous materials.
Read online: Nature Chemistry.
by Ng XW, Teh C, Korzh V, Wohland T
Biophys J. 2016 Jul 26;111(2):418-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2016.06.021
Wnt3 is a morphogen that activates the Wnt signaling pathway and regulates a multitude of biological processes ranging from cell proliferation and cell fate specification to differentiation over embryonic induction to neural patterning. Recent studies have shown that the palmitoylation of Wnt3 by Porcupine, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase, plays a significant role in the intracellular membrane trafficking of Wnt3 and subsequently, its secretion in live zebrafish embryos, where chemical inhibition of Porcupine reduced the membrane-bound and secreted fractions of Wnt3 and eventually led to defective brain development. However, the membrane distribution of Wnt3 in cells remains not fully understood. Here, we determine the membrane organization of functionally active Wnt3-EGFP in cerebellar cells of live transgenic zebrafish embryos and the role of palmitoylation in its organization using single plane illumination microscopy-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SPIM-FCS), a multiplexed modality of FCS, which generates maps of molecular dynamics, concentration, and interaction of biomolecules. The FCS diffusion law was applied to SPIM-FCS data to study the subresolution membrane organization of Wnt3. We find that at the plasma membrane in vivo, Wnt3 is associated with cholesterol-dependent domains. This association reduces with increasing concentrations of Porcupine inhibitor (C59), confirming the importance of palmitoylation of Wnt3 for its association with cholesterol-dependent domains. Reduction of membrane cholesterol also results in a decrease of Wnt3 association with cholesterol-dependent domains in live zebrafish. This demonstrates for the first time, to our knowledge, in live vertebrate embryos that Wnt3 is associated with cholesterol-dependent domains.
Read online: Biophys J
Guanhua Lin, See Wee Chee, Sanoj Raj, Petr Král, and Utkur Mirsaidov
ACS Nano, 2016, 10 (8), pp 7443–7450. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b01721. Publication Date (Web): August 05, 2016
Using in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we visualized a stepwise self-assembly of surfactant-coated and hydrated gold nanoparticles (NPs) into linear chains or branched networks. The NP binding is facilitated by linker molecules, ethylenediammonium, which form hydrogen bonds with surfactant molecules of neighboring NPs. The observed spacing between bound neighboring NPs, ∼15 Å, matches the combined length of two surfactants and one linker molecule. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that for lower concentrations of linkers, NPs with charged surfactants cannot be fully neutralized by strongly binding divalent linkers, so that NPs carry higher effective charges and tend to form chains, due to poor screening. The highly polar NP surfaces polarize and partly immobilize nearby water molecules, which promotes NPs binding. The presented experimental and theoretical approach allows for detail observation and explanation of self-assembly processes in colloidal nanosystems.
Read online: ACS Nano.